DECORADO (a Life on a Stage), by Alberto Vázquez
Abstract: Alberto Vázquez is one of the most well-known Spanish animation director. He is an author who draws and tells stories, and, through his last masterpiece, Decorado, he shows us his goût for different types of cartoons and humor of different filmmakers (for example, the use of ornate spellings and engraving typical of Terry Gilliam, as well as the animal characters based on the underground-style of Robert Crumb are a clue to follow).
As the animated curtain rises, with apparent simplicity and, as disturbing as effective, this short film transports us to a territory that (dis)connects us to the analogue of everyday reality and immerses us in the pseudo-reality. Decorado has received deserved applause and acceptance of a long list of festivals, including Cannes and Annecy, among many others.
Decorado, eleven minutes of enjoyment that is renewed with each new view.
Key Words: Decorado, short film, animation, theatre, stage, representation.
Biography: Adriana Navarro is a Ph.D. Candidate from the UPV. Her work was nominated for Goya Awards, and it was part of the cycle From Doodles to Pixels and the anthology 100 Hundred years of Spanish Animation. Additionally, Adriana collaborated in production and distribution tasks in HollyShorts Film Festival and CulturArts IVAC. She has also published and lectured in France, Portugal, Argentina, Cyprus and Spain. Nowadays, she collaborates in the French magazine Format Court, and she works at the association: Coordinadora del Cortometraje Español. She has made a research stay at the Sorbonne and currently she continues her studies in The Animation Workshop.
DOT. La animación en espectáculos de teatro
Abstract: In the following article Beatriz Herráiz talks about the children’s and family show DOT, created by the Valencian company Maduixa Teatre. The writer of this text is herself the designer and animatior of the audiovisual device for this piece of theater and dance, which scenery consists of just one screen. All the action takes place in this white wall that introduces the spectator to a world of full fantasy. At the moment Beatriz Herráiz researches on the possibilities of projection of images in small formats: the microprojection.
Key Words: Dance, Motion Graphics, animation, Maduixa Teatre.
Biography: Beatriz Herráiz Zornoza (Valencia, 1975), PHD in Fine Arts, lectures Communication Studies Degree and Faculty of Fine Arts in Valencia. Member of the Animation Research Group: Art and Industry, she has worked as Motion Designer at RTVV and UPVRTV. She has delivered papers at Congreso de Tipografía, at CONFIA and at the SAS International An ual Conferences. She has coordinated the international project Historias para compartir, at Conservatoire Balla Kouyate Fasseke Bamako (Mali). She has produced audiovisual design for theatrical plays such as Bonnie and Clyde (Galo Teatro Real), Consonants, DOT (Feten and MAX Award. Maduixa Theatre) and Harket Protocolo (PanicMap). She has curated the exhibition The Lost Worlds of Jiři Barta (2014, Valencia).
About How Did William Kentridge Arrived to the Moon. Journey to the Moon
Abstract: Journey to the Moon (2003) es un cortometraje del artista multidisciplinario William Kentridge, nacido en Sudáfrica, y que realizó estudios en ciencias políticas y estudios africanos, artes visuales y teatro. Su obra, ajena a recetas y fórmulas, emerge de una necesidad personal por generar imágenes dibujadas y se caracteriza por la hibridación de lenguajes a partir del dibujo, la escultura, la gráfica, la performance, la animación y el teatro. Con este filme Kentridge hace un homenaje al mago y cineasta de principios del siglo xx, Georges Méliès, reinterpretando su famoso Viaje a la luna (Voyage dans la Lune 1902).
Key Words: William Kentridge, Georges Méliès, Journey to the Moon, Voyage dans la Lune.
Biography: Tania de León (Mexico, 1974) is a visual artist and Tenure Professor at the Facultad de Artes y Diseño, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Her research-production work is focused on experimental animation, drawing and engraving; and it has been exhibited in different cultural spaces of Mexico, Spain, Taiwan, and Germany among other countries. In 2013 she received one of the most important academic awards in this country: RDUNJA UNAM.
Kathy Rose and Miwa Matreyek: Animated Dance and Performance
Abstract: Live performance combined with projected animation is both very new, with advances in projection mapping and motion sensors, and very old, harkening back to pre-cinematic projected séances, magic lantern shows, and to Winsor McCay’s vaudeville performances with his ‘trained’ animated dinosaur, Gertie. Two contemporary artists create and choreograph one-woman performances populated not only with their own bodies, but also with various animated figures, forms, and designs. Kathy Rose began as an animator, and then later performed with her projections. Miwa Matreyek uses her own figure as a silhouette in her performances, and creates remarkable imagery with two projectors and a screen. In their creative work they both project themselves as characters into their animated performances, and reference magic, dream, and mythology in their work and their imagery.They choreograph their movements to synch with their animated images. Both women play a role behind the camera, and in front of the screen, and play with the dual nature of creator/ director and subject/performer.
Key Words: Performance, animation, silhouettes, body, dance, Matreyek, Rose.
Biography: Lynn Tomlinson is an artist, professor, curator, and award-winning animator who explores the intersection of animation with painting, sculpture, puppetry, and live performance. Recent projects include The Ballad of Holland Island House, a clay-painted animation about the last house on a sinking island; Medusa: The Immortal Jellyfish, a multimedia performance art piece; Breath & Air, abstracted projections on aerial dancers; and Kendra’s Bay, an animated digital puppet. She created a segment of the collaborative animation Fired Up! (2017) based on a story by Barak Obama. She is an Assistant Professor in the Electronic Media and Film Department at Towson University, outside Baltimore, Maryland.
Barry Purves, the scene animator
Abstract: Barry Purves’s filmography is world-wide known in animation festivals. Barry J C Purves (Woodbridge, UK, 1955), an aspiring actor, unexpectedly became an animator after doing a test with puppets for Cosgrove Hall Films, where he produced commercial works for more than ten years. His awakening came with Next (1990), made for Aardman, and since he founded Bare Board Films masterpieces such as Screenplay (1992), Rigoletto (1993), Achilles (1995) or Tchaikovsky (2011) have followed his filmography. These puppets have great realism and convey powerful emotions but above all, the Purves personal films establish privileged relations with the entire legacy of performing arts, from Greek theatre to Classical theatre, Opera, Ballet, and even Bunraku puppet theatre. Purves has kept being a multi-faceted artist who alternates his personal films with productions for children, and in recent years has designed and directed numerous theatrical productions, applauded by critics and public. In the following conversation Barry J C Purves unveils the keys to his creative process in animation and his personal relationship with the theatre.
Key Words: Animation, Stop motion, Barry Purves, puppets, theater
Biography: Marta Gil Soriano (Orihuela, 1993), graduated in Fine Arts from the Universidad Politècnica de Valencia (2015) and currently studying the Master in Artistic Production (2015-2017). Co-founder of the animation studio PTERODACTIVE, a service start-up being the 2D animation and Marketing director. She has worked in the production of the stop-motion series Clay Kids (Javier Tostado, 2015), and her project Apolo 21 (co-directed with Julia Cruz) was selected in various festivals such as NonStop 3D Animation or Wire 3D. She also collaborates with the vice deanery of Fine Arts at UPV and with the Department of Design.
César Díaz Meléndez: Commissioned Animator by Day, Independent Animator at Night
Abstract: César Díaz Meléndez (Madrid, 1975) is one of the most multidisciplinary Spanish animators españoles — and one of the best valued internacionally. Working since 1994, and after having contributed to dozens of animated productions for TV and cinema — including Las tres mellizas (Robert Balser, Baltasar Roca, 1995) and El Cid: The Legend (José Pozo, 2003) —, he started to alternate his personal filmography —like Documentales animados (2002), No corras tanto (2008) or the most recent and well-known Zepo (2014), animated exquisitely with sand — with his comissioned work in stop-motion films, like the Goya Award winner short film El viaje de Said (Coke Rioboo, 2007), the feature film O Apóstolo (Fernando Cortizo, 2012) and a myriad of international productions such as Frankenweenie (Tim Burton, 2012), ParaNorman (Chris Butler, Sam Fell, 2012), Anomalisa (Duke Johnson, Charlie Kaufmann, 2015) or My Life as a Zucchini (Claude Barras, 2016). Nowadays he lives and works in London, shooting the new ans mysterious animated feature by Wes Anderson: Island of Dogs, whose premiere is scheduled for 2018.
Key Words: Stop-motion, comissioned animation, characters, feature film, sand, improvisation.
Biography: María Lorenzo Hernández, PhD in Fine Arts, is a Senior Lecturer in Animation at Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain. She has delivered papers regularly at the Society for Animation Studies annual conferences, and she was keynote speaker at CONFIA 2015 – The International Conference in Illustration & Animation (Portugal). She recently contributed to the book Animated Landscapes (Bloomsbury, 2015), edited by Chris Pallant; and she has published essays in peer-reviewed journals such as Animation Journal, Animation Studies and Animation: An Interdisciplinary Journal, among others. Since 2011 she edits Con A de animación. She is also an animation filmmaker, nominated to the Goya Awards 2016 for her short film The Night Ocean (2015).
Four Editions of Prime the Animation!
Abstract: Prime the Animation!, the international showcase of student short films commemorating the International Animation Day at Universitat Politècnica de València, celebrated its fourth edition in October 2016. The exhibition, organized annually by a team of professors and students of the Faculty of Belles Arts, prepares in 2017 its transformation into a festival. After these years of experience, we take stock and point out the keys that have allowed us to consolidate this initiative.
Key Words: Prime the Animation!, festival, student short films, projects, portfolios, professionals.
Biographies: Sara Alvarez Sarrat started her career as an animator at Tirannosaurus Productions and Truca Films. Shortly after she did an internship at the online magazine AWN, Los Angeles (USA). Her work has been presented at international conferences and published in books and specialized journals. In 2012 she curated the exhibition Surviving Life: Collages by the film by Jan Svankmajer, at UPV. In 2014 he had an internship at the Holland Animation Film Festival (Utrecht, Holland). In 2015 she obtained the Ramón Acín Grant in Visual Arts, to develop the exhibition project La casa Ena. Nowadays she heads the researching group in Animation: Art and Industry, she coordinates the Master Animation Degree at UPV and the showcase Prime the Animation!
The Neverending Wall. A Short Film Production’s Notebook
Abstract: This article introduces The Neverending Wall, an animated short film directed by Silvia Carpizo, where a serial of walls are animated themselves through 2D digital techniques and their integration with live action. The plot is based on a universal concept of struggle, as a nod to the human essence and a claim to individual expressiveness. A single character, Seele, will make his way through the world’s largest outdoor gallery, the East Side Gallery, the last stretch of the well-known wall of shame, the Berlin Wall: 1300-meters lenght wall still standing on foot.
The film is supported by the Galician company Abano Produccións, headed by Chelo Loureiro, five-time nominated to the Goya’s animation, and currently forming part of successful projects such as Decorado by Alberto Vázquez (Nominated Goya, 2016), and the feature film Migas de Pan (Manane Rodríguez, 2016) – selected in Uruguay for the Oscar race. The Neverending Wall also has strong institutional support thanks to ICAA, CulturArts IVAC, and AGADIC. It was selected to represent Spain in Euro Connection of Clermont-Ferrand, starting point to obtain German co-production and to be acquired by Movistar +.
Film production took place at Universitat Politècnica de Valencia, thanks to the collaborative agreement of the Master in Animation of the UPV and the production company Abano Produccións. In this article, its director Silvia Carpizo and assistant director, supervisor and post-production director, Jose Moo, will explain the development of this fascinating short film and all phases of its creation.
Key Words: 2D Animation, Grafiti, Berlin, Wall, Mural Painting, East Side Gallery, Short film.
Biography: Graduated in Art History, Silvia Carpizo studied the Master of Animation of the UPV, where she made her first animated short film, Alienation (2013), winner of several awards and selected in more than 90 national and international festivals and with which she discovered the animation as a discipline that encompasses her two great vocations since she was a child: cinematographic language and drawing. She has experimented with different techniques of animation, but the one that has made her own is the mural animation, where she combines experimental 2D animation with existing graffiti, with a conceptual theme and great social impact in her story. She has also participated in the short film The Cat Dances with its Shadow (María Lorenzo, 2012), and her short film Without Breath (Un respiro, 2015) selected by the Cátedra Internacional Arte y Enfermedades de la UPV for exhibition in numerous European exhibitions of contemporary art. She currently directs The Neverending Wall (2016), beginning her career as a filmmaker and producer with institutional and cinematographic cultural support.
Jose Moo (Valencia, 1986). While he was studying Technical Engineering at the Universitat Politècnica de València he shows a great interest in cinema, so he decided to continue his studies at the Master in Digital Postproduction of the UPV. He begins to work in advertising and shoot live-action short films until he discovers the animated world through the Master of Animation of the UPV. During his training period, he collaborates on several short film projects as a post-producer. He currently works as an assistant director and post-producer in the short film The Neverending Wall.
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Sculpting the Frame.The Elaboration of Models in the Process of Production of Animated Feature Films
Abstract: From early animated feature films to present day, sculpture has played a key role in approaching the design of the characters in three dimensions, since the small-scale sculptures, internationally called “maquettes”, offer an invaluable help to assess its visual potential from all angles. This work has been perfecting over time to become an indispensable role within any of the great studios of animated cinema. The following pages, written by the indefatigable stop-motion animation chronicler, Adrián Encinas, will account for one of the most spectacular creative steps in the process of producing the great animated feature films of all time.
Key Words: Scale model, sculpture, design, preproduction.
Biography: Adrián Encinas Salamanca (Madrid, 1986) is passionate about stop-motion animation cinema. Away from plasticine, metals, plastics and latex, this engineer concentrates on the work of observing, reviewing, showing and therefore spreading the art of this century-old technique. In 2008 he began his career with Puppets & Clay, the first Spanish blog focused exclusively on stop-motion and one of the most exhaustive until today. In addition, since 2010 he runs an anarchic fanzine in periodicity under the same name as his blog, and in the past 2016 he published the book ¡Bien hecho, Gromit! Cuarenta Años de Aardman Animations (Diábolo Ediciones). Encinas has not only put his prose to the service of his interests, but also collaborates in fanzines of cult (Data, Amazing Monsters), digital magazines in English (Stop Motion Magazine), collective books (The Spanish short film in 100 Names, 2016) and even catalogs of major exhibitions (Stop Motion Don’t Stop, 2013).
Experimental Animation in the Field of Affections
Abstract: This article is based on my great interest in experimental animation for several years. It has been the focus of interest in my classes at the Faculty of Arts of the Javeriana University in Bogotá, since it has opened the door to understand the multiple expressive possibilities of animation in relation to the arts. In the same way, it has been very enriching in my practice as a teacher and animator, to have met many animators from different corners of the world both in festivals and as guests we have had in the university to discuss and stimulate creation from the margins. In the documentary series of three chapters Perpetuum Mobile, which I did with my colleague Mauricio Durán, we gathered some of these discussions, exploring the multiple possibilities of creation that the animation has, and at the same time, this documentary has been configured as a starting point for several investigations as the one I address in this text.
This is a reflection on experimental animation from the perspective of affection and sensation, in contrast to traditional ways of seeing focused especially on the plot of the films in a rational way, leaving aside aspects of sensorial character that can enrich our relationship with the world. It is an invitation to be carried away by aspects such as color, materials, sound, rhythm and movement at the moment of seeing this type of animations.
Key Words: Experimental animation, affection, materiality, rhythm, sensation, nonlinear storytelling.
Biography: Cecilia Traslaviña González works as animation teacher in the Faculty of Arts at Pontificia Universidad Javeriana in Bogotá, Colombia. She became interested in animation from a very young age. After several failed experiments with a Super 8 mm camera, she finally finished her first short thanks to digital technology. She has participated with her works and as jury and curator in different festivals and events around the world. She co-directed with Mauricio Durán the documentary Perpetuum Mobile (2014), divided in three chapters (I. Time and Space. II. Creative Processes. III. Technology and Creation), in which they reflect on the relationship between Animation and Arts. She is currently working on her first stop motion technique short film; the film is based on the sensations she experienced during the reading of the book Estancia y doméstica by the Chilean poet Mariela Malhue (2010). Furthermore, she is a member of Moebius Animation, whose interest is focused on the dissemination of experimental Latin American animation.
The New Ways of Staging Opera. A Case Study. The Magic Flute by 1927 and Kosky: 2D Animation, New Digital Technologies and a Vintage Style
Abstract: Opera, a genre often linked to the past, is proving to be more alive than ever. Thanks to the contribution of directors and investigators coming from the ranks of theatre, opera became the excellence in the field of contemporary experimentation especially in relation to the use of new technologies. A real paradox. An example is the staging of Mozart’s The Magic Flute by Komische Oper Berlin, conceived and directed by the British company 1927 and the Australian director Barrie Kosky in 2012. It is an atypical and unusual staging of The Magic Flute that uses video projection mapping technologies but at the same time also 2D animation techniques, hand drawings, with the goal of merging aesthetics of the past, in particular those of the silent film and the animation of the origins, with our contemporary age. The purpose of this paper is to analyze this staging linking it to the general problems of staging of repertory operas nowadays.
Key Words: Digital set design, video projection mapping, opera, animation, visual culture.
Biography: Vincenzo Sansone was born in Termini Imerese in Italy in 1987. Master’s degree in Digital Performance at Sapienza University of Rome, he is PhD student in European Cultural Studies at the University of Palermo and Visiting Scholar at Pompeu Fabra University of Barcelona and Universitat Politècnica de València with a research about video projection mapping and its relationship with performing arts. The focus of his research concerns these areas: theatre, dance, new media, animation, AR technologies, software culture, urban design. He is actor and digital set designer. He took part to some international conferences: Bodies on Stage (Paris, 2015), Presenting the Theatrical Past (IFTR-Stockholm, 2016), Open Field (RIXC-Riga, 2016).
Teatro Cinema: Animation, Graphic Narrative and Mise-en-Scène in the Play Historia de Amor
Abstract: The use of film and video projections in theatrical staging and scenography is a common strategy in contemporary theatre. Animation is also part of the possibilities offered by audiovisual language to dramatic performance. In this context, the Chilean company Teatro Cinema has pioneered the transformation of dramatic space through the use of digital technologies. By offering spatial compositions that bring together drama and cinema languages in original ways, Teatro Cinema goes beyond the basics bi-dimensional projections to a brand new tridimensional spatiality. In this paper we propose a review of the play Historia de amor (Love Story), in which this company achieves this transformation in the most effective way, by also introducing expressive strategies from graphic narratives, in a sort of animated graphic novel with live action performers, which expands the theatrical experience, but also inaugurates for the animation a new space of contact with its public, in the field of the living arts.
Key Words: Expanded Animation, visual theatre, mise-en-scène, graphic narrative, animated space.
Biography: Juan Alberto Conde Aldana has a degree in communication studies, and a MA in philosophy from Javeriana University in Bogota, and is a doctoral candidate in Semiotics at the Limoges University in France. He is assistant professor in the master program in Semiotics of the Jorge Tadeo Lozano University in Bogota, Colombia.
Juan Manuel Cristancho Hernández has a Degree in performing arts and a Post-Graduate Degree in pedagogy from the Pedagogica Nacional University in Bogota, Colombia. He holds a Master degree in Semiotics at Jorge Tadeo Lozano University in Bogota, Colombia. He teaches Drama in the Bogota’s District Office for Education, and is co-director, physical trainer and playwright in the youth art collective Territorio Teatral – Okima Danza.
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Three-Dimensional Films Postproduction with Blender. Approaching Workflows with Free Software in Animation Sequences
Abstract: In this article we will look at the evolution and challenges involved the digital postproduction of the film El Hereje, produced in 2015, where have been used three-dimensional graphics generated by free software Blender. We will cross the different stages of the visual effects of a feature film analyzing the problems and solutions employed in this production. The postproduction of this film has been made by the research group IDECA belonging to the University of Castilla-La Mancha, being the first long feature made in Spain under these conditions.
Key Words: Workflow, movie, Computer graphics integrated, animation, 3D, Blender.
Biography: Miguel Angel Roque is professor and researcher at the University of Castilla-La Mancha where he developed his teaching activities mainly in the area of design and audiovisual. Joined to IDECA research group for ten years, specialized in the research and development of audiovisual contents. His current research focuses on the three-dimensional graphics.
Adagio. The Material as a Narrative and Symbolic Element
Abstract: Eliane Gordeeff is a graphic designer (UFRJ / Brazil, 1994), an independent animator and master in Art and Image (UFRJ / Brasil 2011). Today is a Ph.D. fellow student (CNPq / Brazil) in Fine Arts / Specialization in Multimédia at the Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Lisbon. Associated with ASIFA, she works with animation since 2000, and realized 16 productions with more than 30 awards that have been exhibited at festivals such as Anima Mundi (Brazil), Cinanima (Portugal), Latinoamericano of Havana (Cuba) and Encounters (England). In her productions there is always a concern with relation message-image. As a research her interest is the animated image, in all its aspects, but especially symbolic. In researching her master, she studied how the material can influence the narrative, and in her current Ph.D., examines how the animated image can represent imaginary elements of the characters.
Key Words: Stop motion animation, Animation Aesthetics, Connotation, Origami.
Biography: Eliane Gordeeff is a graphic designer (UFRJ / Brazil, 1994), an independent animator and master in Art and Image (UFRJ / Brasil 2011). Today is a Ph.D. fellow student (CNPq / Brazil) in Fine Arts / Specialization in Multimédia at the Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Lisbon. Associated with ASIFA, she works with animation since 2000, and realized 16 productions with more than 30 awards that have been exhibited at festivals such as Anima Mundi (Brazil), Cinanima (Portugal), Latinoamericano of Havana (Cuba) and Encounters (England). In her productions there is always a concern with relation message-image. As a research her interest is the animated image, in all its aspects, but especially symbolic. In researching her master, she studied how the material can influence the narrative, and in her current Ph.D., examines how the animated image can represent imaginary elements of the characters.
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The Scale of Animation. From the Scene of Karel Zeman to the Meeting with Josef Svoboda
Abstract: Puppet theater is one of the most important traditions at Czech Republic, which has canalized the development of stop-motion animation and theater. Karel Zeman entered in filmmaking through stop-motion, like Jiří Trnka and Hermína Týrlová. At the same time, news stage installative techniques were developed by the Lanterna Magika, a new teatral company, and, especially one of its founders, the stage designer Josef Svoboda, who combined real actors with animation. As well, one of the most relevant features of Karel Zeman as a filmmaker was the use of diferent kind of space according to what the Mise-en-scène needed, a context that will allow us to analize stage techniques with film techniques like matte-painting — similar to stage techniques, and projections and theatral methods applicables to Zeman’s animation, like his actoral methods in relation to puppets. In this essa, through the analysis and comparison of works by Zeman and Svoboda, and the different scenes they devise, we will realize that animation and theatre are communicating vessels.
Key Words: Karel Zeman, Josef Svoboda, matte painting, stage, stop-motion.
Biography: Blanca Machuca Casares, PhD in Fine Arts, is a stage designer and she works like graphic designer and museographer for the study of architecture Luis Machuca y Asociados Sl, and she is a teacher in the Faculty of Fine Arts of the University of Malaga. Her PhD thesis relates of dramatic art techniques to the process of artist and the contemporary spectator using the game as a linking element.
The Cartoon Studio CIFESA and the films of Rigalt-Reyes
Abstract: The golden age of the Spanish animation (1939-1955) —when over one hundred of short-films and other five feature-length animated films were produced— has always been interesting because of the difficult post-war context in which it developed. But it becomes more challenging if we focus on its beginnings, mostly times a self-learning period, and even more if we move away from the epicenter of Barcelona city. This is the story of the first Valencian animators that we have recorded, the practically unknown team of Carlos Rigalt and José Mª Reyes.
However, in this essay, an enigmatic side is also added to their pioneering heroism because there is no trace of this couple’s mysterious work sponsored by CIFESA in their ephemeral incursion into a personal production through a little animation studio —Estudio de Dibujos Animados CIFESA —. Works, authors and infrastructures that did not transcend and that the time buried under the cover of forgetting, but that they may deserve to be remembered due to their condition of pioneers in a technique, in a country in hard times.
The aim of this work that started in Valencia, and after Madrid and Barcelona, it will amazingly end in Guatemala, is to restore his memory. A travel behind the steps of a multidisciplinary and talented artist who was the most important element of the story and complicit in his own oblivion at the same time.
Key Words: Guatemala, Carlos Rigalt, scenography, decorative arts, golden age of the Spanish animation, animation pioneer.
Biography: Raúl González-Monaj teaches Audiovisual Communication and he also leads the Animation Master in the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Expert in television pre-production, he has worked as a professional in about twenty animated cartoon series, several feature-length animated films as well as in different advertising spots. He is the author of the book Manual para la realización de storyboards (2007) and he has published in specialized magazines like Secuencias, revista de historia del cine, Con A de animación or CuCo, cuadernos de cómic.